Hieroglyphs tutorial; Past and Present tense

The endings of verbs are always;



Present tense

The present tense uses the standard stem of each class of verb (see verbs; part one) with the endings listed above. For example, the present tense of the verb sDm (to hear) is as follows;

sDm.ysDm.y
I hear
sDm.ksDm.k
You (masc) hear
sDm.TsDm.T
You (fem) hear
sDm.fsDm.f
He (it) hears
sDm.ssDm.s
She (it) hears
sDm.nsDm.n
We hear
sDm.TnsDm.Tn
You hear
sDm.snsDm.sn
They hear


Past Tense

The past tense is often known as the "sDm.n(=f)" (or "sedjemenef") tense as this is the form used to write the first person singular (ie "he") of the standard strong verb ("sDm" - "to hear"). The "n" is separated from the verb stem by a dot to show that it is the verbal ending and not part of the stem.

The stem of strong, weak and extra weak verbs remains unchanged, but the last consonant of doubling verbs is sometimes omitted.


Strong verbs
sDm.n=(f)
sDm.n=(f)
he heard

Doubled verbs
mA.n=(f)
mA.n=(f)
he saw

Weak verbs
mr.n=(f)
mr.n=(f)
he loved

Extra weak verbs
rdi.n=(f)
rdi.n=(f)
he gave, he placed

The "sDm.n=f" form is often preceded by an auxilliary word such as "iw". This term is not translated as there is no equivalent in English. The term is most often found in recorded speech as it implies an involvement in the events being described.

sDm.n=(f)iw
auxiliary term
iw Hbs.n=i HAyiw Hbs.n=i HAy
I clothed the naked


Hieroglyphs tutorial; Verbs, part one


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