X; Bread and cakes

The hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt are often listed in groups of associated glyphs. The following hieroglyphs have been grouped according to the system established by Sir Alan Gardiner and are all depictions of bread and cakes.


X1; bread loaf
X1
Phon; t Log; bread Abbr; "father"
X2; bread loaf
X2
Det and Log; bread Abbr; Thoth, "father" in "jt-nTr"- "father of the god"
X2a; bread loaf and beer jug
X2a
Det; mortuary offering, food
X3; bread loaf
X3
Det and Log; bread Abbr; Thoth, "father" in "jt-nTr"- "father of the god"
X4; bread loaf
X4
Det; bread, food, food offering
X4a; elongated bread loaf
X4a
Det; bread, food, food offering
X5; elongated bread loaf with two strokes
X5
Det; bread, food, food offering
X6; round bread loaf with bakers fingermark
X6
Det and Phon Det; "PAt"- "bread"
X7; half loaf
X7
Det; half loaf, food offerings, food
X7a; two half loaves
X7a
Det; Det; to eat, food Abbr; eat
X8; conical bread loaf
X8
Phon; d (rare) Abbr; give

Codes

Abb; the sign is an abbreviation of a word,
Det; the sign acts as a determinative (it has no phonetic value, but provids further information about the full word),
Log; the sign is a logogram (it represents an entire word or idea),
Phon; the sign has a phonetic value, and
Phon Det; the sign is a phonetic determinant (it acts as a determinative but also has a phonetic value).


A: Man and his occupations
B: Woman and her occupations
C: Anthropomorphic Deities
D: Parts of the body
E: Mammals
F: Parts of Mammals
G: Birds, 1
H: Parts of Birds
I: Amphibious Animals, Reptiles, etc.
K: Fishes and Parts of Fishes
L: Invertebrata and Lesser Animals
M: Trees and Plants
N: Sky, Earth, Water
O: Buildings and Parts of Buildings
P: Ships and Parts of Ships
Q: Domestic and Funerary Furniture
R: Temple Furniture and Sacret Emblems
S: Crowns, Dress, Staves, etc
T: Warfare, Hunting, Butchery
U: Agriculture, Crafts and Professions
V: Rope, Fibre, Baskets, Bags, etc.
W: Vessels of Stone and Earthenware
X: Loaves and Cakes
Y: Writing, Games, Music
Z: Strokes, Geometrical Figures, etc.
Aa: Unclassified

Return to Gardiner's sign list Pronunciation guide
copyright J Hill 2010
Return to Top
Ancient Egypt Online

Predynastic period Early Dynastic Old Kingdom First Intermediate Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate New Kingdom Third Intermediate Graeco-Roman period Late period