Manetho

Manetho was a Graeco-Egyptian priest in the Temple of Heliopolis. He was born in Sebennytos (in the Delta) during the Third Century B.C. His "Egyptian History" divided the rulers into dynasties, or ruling houses and formed the basis of the modern system of dating Ancient Egypt. He had access to many sources which no longer exist (such as temple records), but also included legends and fanciful stories. As a result, you have to take some of his stories with a pinch of salt.

No full copies of Manetho's text remain, we only have short sections of text and a few references in the writings of Josephus Flavius (first century A.D.), Sextus Julius Africanus (third century B.C), Eusebius of Cesarea (third/fourth century B.C) and George Syncellos (a Byzantine historian from the eighth century A.D). As a result, our knowledge of the original text is limited, and coloured by the opinions of the authors who referred to him.


Manetho: kings list

(Pharaoh, duration of reign in years)

Dynasty One

Menes; Reigned for 62 or 30 years. He was probably Hor-aha, but some argue that he was Narmer, or a hybrid of several pre-dynastic kings.

Athothis; Reigned for 57 or 27 years. Thought to be Djer

Kenkenes; Reigned for 31 or 39 years

Wenefes; Reigned for 23 or 42 years. Thought to be Djet

Usaphaidos; Reigned for 20 years. He is generally agreed to be Den

Miebis; Reigned for 26 years. He is generally agreed to be Anedjib

Semempses; Reigned for 18 years. He is generally agreed to be Semerkhet

Bieneches; Reigned for 26 years. He is generally agreed to be Qa'a


Dynasty Two

Boethos; Reigned for 38 years. He is generally agreed to be Hotepsekhemwy

Kaiechos; Reigned for 39 years. He is generally agreed to be Raneb

Binothris; Reigned for 47 years. He is generally agreed to be Nynetjer

Thias; Reigned for 17 years. He is generally agreed to be Sekhemib (also known as Seth-peribsen)

Sethenes; Reigned for 41 years. Thought to be Sendji

Chaires; Reigned for 17 years. Some scholars believe him to be Nubnefer

Neferkheres; Reigned for 25 years. Thought to be Neferkare

Sesochris; Reigned for 48 years. Thought to be Neferkasokar

Kheneres (or Cheneris); Reigned for 30 years. Generally agreed to be Khasekhemwy

Dynasty Three

Necherophes; Reigned for 28 years. Generally agreed to be Sanakhte

Tosorthios; Reigned for 29 years. Generally agreed to be Djoser

Tyreis; Reigned for 7 years. Generally agreed to be Sekhemkhet

Mesochris; Reigned for 17 years. Unclear, but may be Khaba

Suphis; Reigned for 16 years. Unclear

Toserfasis; Reigned for 19 years. Unclear

Aches; Reigned for 42 years. May be Huni

Sephouris; Reigned for 30 or 48 years

Kerferes; Reigned for 26 years

Dynasty Four

Soris; Reigned for 28 years. He is generally agreed to be Sneferu.

Suphis I; Reigned for 63 years. He is generally agreed to be Khufu.

Suphis II; Reigned for 66 years. He is generally agreed to be Khafre.

Mencheres; Reigned for 63 years. He is generally agreed to be Menkaure.

Ratoises; Reigned for 25 years

Bicheris; Reigned for 22 years

Sebercheres; Reigned for 7 years

Tamphtis; Reigned for 9 or 48 years

Dynasty Five

Usercheres; Reigned for 28 years. Probably Userkaf

Sephres; Reigned for 13 years. Probably Sahure

Nepherchres; Reigned for 20 years. Possibly Neferirkare

Sisires; Reigned for 7 years. Generally thought to be Shepseskare

Cheres; Reigned for 20 years. Generally thought to be Neferefre

Rathures; Reigned for 44 years. Generally held to be Niuserre

Mencheres; Reigned for 9 years. Generally held to be Menkauhor

Tencheres; Reigned for 44 years. Generally thought to be Djedkare

Onnos; Reigned for 33 years. Generally thought to be Unas

Dynasty Six

Othoes;
Reigned for 30 years. Generally thought to be Teti

Phios;
Reigned for 53 years. He is generally agreed to be Pepi I

Methusuphis;
Reigned for 7 years. He is generally agreed to be Merenre I

Phiops;
Reigned for an unlikely 99 years. He is generally agreed to be Pepi II

Menthesupis;
Reigned for almost a year. He is generally agreed to be Merenre II

Nitocris;
Reigned for 12 years. She is generally agreed to be Queen Nitocris

Dynasty Twelve

Amemenes 16

Sesonchosis 46

Ammanemes 38

Sesostris 48

Lachares 8

Ameres 8

Ammenemes 8

Skemiophris 4


Dynasty Eighteen

The names given to the eighteen dynasty kings vary depending on the source. The names below are from Josephus , Africanus and Eusebus.

;Tethmosis, Amos or Amoses; reigned for 24-25 years and agreed to be Ahmose I

;Chebron 13 ;Chebros 13 ;Chebron 13

;Amenophis 20/7 ;Amenophthis 24 ;Amophis 21

;Amessis 21/9 ;Amensis 22 ;(?)

;Mephres 12/9 ;Misaphres 13 ;Memphres 12

;Mephramuthosis 25/10 ;Misphragnuthosis 26 ;Misphamuthosis 26

;Thmosis 9/8 ;Tuthmosis 9 ;Tuthmosis 9

;Amenophis 30/10 ;Amenophis 31 ;Amenopthis 31

;Orus 36/5 ;Orus 37 ;Orus 28

;Acencheres 12/1 ;Acherres 32 ;Achencheres 16

;Rathotis 9 ;Rathos 6 ;(possibly Tutankhamun)

;Acencheres I 12/5 ;Chebris 12 ;Acherres 8

;Acencheres II 12/3 ;Acherres 12 ;Cherres 15

;Harmais 3 months; Amesis 5 ;Amais 5

;Ramesses 3 months ;Ramesses 1 year ;(?)

;Harmesses Miamen 66 ;(?) ;Ramesses (Aegyptus) 68

;Amenopthis 19 ;Amenophath 19 ;Amenophis 40

;Sethos 59 ;Sethos 51 ;Sethos 55

;Rampses 66 ;Rapsaces 61 ;Rampses 66

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