Map of ancient Egypt: Lower Egypt

Map of the Nomes of Lower Egypt
Ta Mehu; Lower Egypt

This map of ancient Egypt covers Lower Egypt. Lower Egypt was the northern-most section of ancient Egypt stretching from just south of modern-day Cairo to the Nile Delta at Alexandria. The labelling of "upper" and "lower" seems counterintuitive. Lower Egypt is in the north because it is further from the source of the river Nile (which flows into the Mediterranean). Lower Egypt´s landscape is dominated by the Nile delta, a fertile marshy area scored by tributaries and canals. The climate is milder and there is more rainfall in this area than in Upper Egypt. Lower Egypt was always the more industrialised, partly because it benefited from trade links with the middle east, the Mediterranean and northern Africa.

Lower Egypt was known as Ta-Mehu and was (like Upper Egypt) divided into areas called Nomes There were up to twenty nomes, although they varied more in number and as the environment changed over time. The patron goddess of the Ancient Lower Egypt is Wadjet. As a result the cobra could also represent Lower Egypt. This goddess was referenced with Nekhbet (of Upper Egypt) in the Pharaoh's 'Nebty' name (also known as the 'two ladies'). However, Lower Egypt was also associated with Bast, Ptah, Nephthys, Neith and Horus in mythology and art. The heraldic plant was the papyrus, but Lower Egypt was also represented by a bee, as in the Pharaoh´s Prenomen which begins with the epithet "he of the sedge and bee" (meaning he of Upper and Lower Egypt). The Pharaoh (and a few of the gods) wore the Red Crown ("deshret") to display their power over Lower Egypt. The crown was combined with the White Crown of Upper Egypt to form the Double Crown ("pschent").



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


1: White fortress (White Wall)

Emblem of the 1st Nome
Gods
Ptah, Sekhmet, Nefertem, Sokar, Hathor, Renpet and the Apis

Cities
Inebhedj/Mennefer (Memphis, Mit Rahina), temples of Ptah and Hathor

White Chapel
Represented by Horus before Inebhedj



2: Khensu (foreleg)

Emblem of the 2nd Nome
Gods
Horus, Kherty, Khentykhem

Cities
Khem (Letopolis, Ausim), temple of Horus-KhentyKhem

White Chapel
Represented by Khentykhem




3: Ament (West)

Emblem of the 3rd Nome
Gods
Hathor

Cities
Imu (Kom el-Hisn), temple of Hathor -Sekhmet

White Chapel
Represented by Hepy of Hut-Ihyt




4: Sap-res (The southern shield)

Emblem of the 4th Nome
Gods
Neith, Sobek

Cities
unexcavated

White Chapel
Represented by Neith and Sobek ("of Sais")




5: Sap-meh (The northern shield)

Emblem of the 5th Nome
Gods
Neith, Sobek, Wadjet

Cities
Sau (Sais, Sa al-Hagar), temple of Neith
Per-wadjet (Buto), cult centre of Wadjet

White Chapel
Represented by (Neith and Sobek) Sau ('of Sais')




6: Kaset (Mountain Bull)

Emblem of the 6th Nome
Gods
Ra Wadjet

Cities
Khasu (Xois, Sakha), temple of Ra
Pe and Dep/ Per Wadjet (Buto, Tell el-Farain; see above), temple of Wadjet

White Chapel
unclear




7: West harpoon

Emblem of the 7th Nome
Gods
Hu

Cities
unexcavated

White Chapel
Represented by a harpoon and a cord




8: East harpoon

Emblem of the 8th Nome
Gods
Atum

Cities
Peratum (Pithom, Tell al-Maskhuta), temple of Atum

White Chapel
Represented by a harpoon and a cord




9: Andjet

Emblem of the 9th Nome
Gods
Osiris, Andjety

Cities
Djedu (Busiris, Abu Sir Bana), temple of Horus-Khentkhety (Khentykhety)

White Chapel
Represented by Osiris of Djedu




10: Ka-qem or Kem-wer (the Black Bull)

Emblem of the 10th Nome
Gods
Horus

Cities
Hutherib (Athribis, Tell Atrib), temple of Osiris, and Isis

White Chapel
unclear




11: Ka-henseb (Heseb Bull)

Emblem of the 11th Nome
Gods
Tefnut, Shu, Maahes (Mihos)

Cities
Taremu (Leontopolis, Tell al-Moqdam), temple of Maahes (Mihos)

White Chapel
Represented by Bau




12: Theb-ka (calf and cow)

Emblem of the 12th Nome
Gods
Anhur (Onuris)

Cities
Tjebennetjer (Sebennytus, Samanud), temple of Anhur - Shu and Mehyt
Perhebyt (Behbeit), temple of Isis of Hebyt

White Chapel
Represented by Matyt or Bat




13: Heq-at (prospering or undamaged sceptre)

Emblem of the 13th Nome
Gods
Atum, Nephthys, Iusaas, the Mnevis Bull, Hesat, Anubis

Cities
Iunu (Heliopolis, Matariya), temple of Ra-Atum, Hathor
Kheraha (possibly the Greek 'Babylon of Egypt' in Old Cairo), temple of Atum

White Chapel
Represented by Isis, Bast of Su




14: Khenty-ab (foremost of the east)

Emblem of the 14th Nome
Gods
Set

Cities
Tjaru (Sile), temple of Horus of Mesen

White Chapel
Represented by Horus Hebenu




15: Tehut (Ibis)

Emblem of the 15th Nome
Gods
Thoth, the Ogdoad

Cities
Ba'h or Weprehwy (Hermopolis Parva, Baqliya), temple of Thoth

White Chapel
missing entry




16: Kha

Emblem of the 16th Nome
Gods
Banebdjed, Hatmehyt , The Djed Pillar

Cities
Djedet (Mendes), temple of Banebdjed

White Chapel
Represented by 'he of Djedet'




17: Semabehdet (the throne, Behdet)

Emblem of the 17th Nome
Gods
Horus

Cities
Semabehdet (Behdet, Balamun), temple of Amun
White Chapel
missing entry




18: Am-Khent (Prince of the south)

Emblem of the 18th Nome
Gods
Bast

Cities
Bast (Bubastis, near Zagazig), temple of Bast

White Chapel
Represented by Bast




19: Am-Pehu (Prince of the north)

Emblem of the 19th Nome
Gods
Wadjyt

Cities
Imet (Nebesha), temple of Wadjet
Djanet (Tanis), temple of Amun, Mut and Khonsu

White Chapel
missing entry




20: Sopdu (plumed falcon)

Emblem of the 20th Nome
Gods
Sopdu

Cities
Per-Sopdu (Saft al-Henna), temple of Sopdu

White Chapel
missing entry




Map of ancient Egypt: Upper Egypt

copyright J Hill 2010
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