X; Bread and cakes

The hieroglyphs of ancient Egypt are often listed in groups of associated glyphs. The following hieroglyphs have been grouped according to the system established by Sir Alan Gardiner and are all depictions of bread and cakes.

X1; bread loaf
Phon; t Log; bread Abbr; “father” X2; bread loaf
Det and Log; bread Abbr; Thoth, “father” in “jt-nTr”- “father of the god”X2a; bread loaf and beer jug
Det; mortuary offering, foodX3; bread loaf
Det and Log; bread Abbr; Thoth, “father” in “jt-nTr”- “father of the god”X4; bread loaf
Det; bread, food, food offering X4a; elongated bread loaf
Det; bread, food, food offering X5; elongated bread loaf with two strokes
Det; bread, food, food offering X6; round bread loaf with bakers fingermark
Det and Phon Det; “PAt”- “bread”X7; half loaf
Det; half loaf, food offerings, food X7a; two half loaves
Det; Det; to eat, food Abbr; eatX8; conical bread loaf
Phon; d (rare) Abbr; give


Abb; the sign is an abbreviation of a word,
Det; the sign acts as a determinative (it has no phonetic value, but provides further information about the full word),
Log; the sign is a logogram (it represents an entire word or idea),
Phon; the sign has a phonetic value, and
Phon Det; the sign is a phonetic determinant (it acts as a determinative but also has a phonetic value).

A: Man and his occupations
B: Woman and her occupations
C: Anthropomorphic Deities
D: Parts of the body
E: Mammals
F: Parts of Mammals
G: Birds, 1
H: Parts of Birds
I: Amphibious Animals, Reptiles, etc.
K: Fishes and Parts of Fishes
L: Invertebrata and Lesser Animals
M: Trees and Plants
N: Sky, Earth, Water
O: Buildings and Parts of Buildings
P: Ships and Parts of Ships
Q: Domestic and Funerary Furniture
R: Temple Furniture and Sacret Emblems
S: Crowns, Dress, Staves, etc
T: Warfare, Hunting, Butchery
U: Agriculture, Crafts and Professions
V: Rope, Fibre, Baskets, Bags, etc.
W: Vessels of Stone and Earthenware
X: Loaves and Cakes
Y: Writing, Games, Music
Z: Strokes, Geometrical Figures, etc.
Aa: Unclassified

Return to Gardiner’s sign list

Pronunciation guide

copyright J Hill 2010